Hyper pigmentation is a condition in which skin become darker in color than the surrounding skin. This darkening occurs when an excess of melanin pigment is deposited in the skin. Melanin gives our skin its colour. We all have varying amounts of melanin in our skin. Pigmented lesions are dark in colour simply because the melanin becomes abnormally concentrated in one area of the skin.
Melasma or chloasma spots are large areas of darkened skin that appears most often as a result of hormonal changes. Pregnancy can trigger overproduction of melanin that causes darkened skin on the face, abdomen and other areas. Women taking birth control pill may also develop hyper pigmentation.
Age spots are a common form of hyper pigmentation. They occur due to sun damage and are found on the hands, face and other areas exposed to the sun. Skin diseases such as acne may also leave dark spots. Other causes of dark spots are injuries to the skin, including some surgeries. Freckles are small brown spots that can appear anywhere on the body, but are most common on the face and arms.
There is now effective laser treatment available for hyper pigmentation in Gurgaon. The laser used for this purpose is Q-Switched NdYag laser. The laser emits a highly focused beam of light, which passes harmlessly through the outer layers of the skin and is absorbed primarily by melanin. The laser has extremely short pulses of high power that can be shorter than 20 nanoseconds (one nanosecond equals one billionth of a second). This allows this laser to have a photo-mechanical effect on melanin containing melanosomes in melanocytes, after shattering these cells. The remnants are then removed by the body’s immune system or shed from the skin without scarring.
The laser selectively targets the pigment and does not affect the surrounding skin. Most patients tolerate the treatment well. Most people compare the sensation of laser shots to the snap of a rubber band. If treatment is uncomfortable, surface anesthesia may be used.
After laser treatment, the treated area may become white in color and swell slightly. There might be some redness & slight burning sensation. The whiteness subsides in about 30 minutes. The redness and swelling can be minimized by cooling the skin with an ice pack. Strict sun protection is recommended after laser treatment. The pigmented lesion may fade over the next few weeks. Some pigmented lesions may clear in just one session but others may take multiple sessions spaced 4-8 weeks apart.